Episode 9: Intro music, outro music, and an expanded number of research topics!

In Episode 9, we discuss the smell of feces, the number of women in the world, permanent markers, endangered animals, the Great Wall of China, fame, the food chain, yawning, and our age in minutes. We also add music played by our class with the help of our music teacher, Ms. Montana!

Recorded February 7th, 2018.

Honoring Black History, not White Supremacy, Part 2

It is now February 4th, and Black History Month has begun. So, what am I teaching? Am I presenting an informed and truthful view of Black History? Is my teaching impacting my students in a positive way? Good question, but I’m not yet ready to answer it. I have a few things to discuss first.

Step 2: Keep learning.

I have been reading recently about social identity theory and development so that I might better understand what is happening inside the hearts and minds of my students. In 1979, Henri Tajfel and John Turner wrote that social identity is formed over time through a series of steps, and that an individual’s social identity impacts their perception and action. Simply put, we desire to belong, and this sense of belonging pushes us to choose groups. We categorize ourselves into certain groups and out of other groups. This process influences who we are and what we do. Tajfel and Turner define a group “as a collection of individuals who perceive themselves to be members of the same social category, share some emotional involvement in this common definition of themselves, and achieve some degree of social consensus about the evaluation of their group and of their membership of it” (p. 40). The authors call this first step Social Categorization.

The second step in the formation of social identity is that of Social Identification. This is the internal experience of identifying oneself as a part of a particular group. You form your identity based on characteristics, qualities, and values that either align you with your group, or differentiate you from other groups. Once identified, we tend to mirror the predominant patterns of our in-groups, and compare ourselves to the shared perceptions of the out-groups. This perception-based comparison is often inaccurate or incomplete, because it does not reflect understanding. This is the third step, Social Comparison, and is the source of stereotyping, which leads to prejudice and discrimination.

This is why our intentional work during Black History Month is so important. If we are not careful with the narrative we present, we can cause the development of social identities founded on unnecessary and inaccurate perceptions about self and other.

Professor Kimberle Crenshaw’ s work on intersectionality in 1989 expanded on the implications of social identity theory, but pointed out a crucial flaw in previous understandings. She wrote specifically about how Black women are ignored through single-axis comparisons:

“With Black women as the starting point, it becomes
more apparent how dominant conceptions of discrimination
condition us to think about subordination as disadvantage occurring
along a single categorical axis. I want to suggest further that
this single-axis framework erases Black women in the conceptualization,
identification and remediation of race and sex discrimination
by limiting inquiry to the experiences of otherwise-privileged
members of the group. In other words, in race discrimination cases,
discrimination tends to be viewed in terms of sex- or class-privileged
Blacks; in sex discrimination cases, the focus is on race- and
class-privileged women.”

Professor Crenshaw has continued her work over the past 30 years, founding the African American Policy Forum and Columbia Law School’s Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies.

Professor Crenshaw’s more recent work connects intersectionality to critical race theory. She has a TED talk titled, The Urgency of Intersectionality, and served as an editor in a collection of writings titled Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed The Movement.

This simple introduction to resources on social identity theory, intersectionality, and critical race theory is intended to open the door into these topics and frame this next step in my work around Black History Month.

Step 3: Establish Goals

Keeping in mind all that I have referenced here and in Honoring Black History, not White Supremacy, Part 1, I have to set a few goals for my work this month. Here is my list:

  • Be intentional with every teaching decision around Black History.
  • Honor the profound contributions of African Americans throughout history.
  • Establish in the minds of all of my students an in-group of humanity, including all races, classes, genders, and creeds, so as to prevent the tendency to discriminate on the basis of out-group prejudices.
  • Ensure that the images I present to my students do not cause trauma, but instead grow a sense of empowerment.

Step 4: Research and Plan

In order to achieve the above goals, I will need resources. As a white man, my perception of any resource or lesson plan has inherent blind spots. It is important that the resources I use to support the learning in my classroom represent voices beyond my own.

Here is a list of curricular resources and perspective resources I am using to guide me:

As always, this is just a start. I will continue seeking out additional resources throughout this month and all year.

Step 5: Teach!

In order to accomplish the goals I outlined above, I need a comprehensive approach, meaning I will be teaching Black History both directly and indirectly.

  • A Breadth of Understanding: My school is including a short biography of an important figure in Black History each morning on the announcements. To reinforce the importance of these individuals, I am collecting their names and a few important pieces of information in our classroom. We are discussing each person during our Morning Meeting.
  • A Depth of Understanding: Our most significant study is through a biography research project. We are currently in the midst of a 9-week study of winter weather which will culminate in our students developing designs for new products and strategies to help our town respond to ice and snow. We thought it fitting for our students to learn about inventors, scientists, and mathematicians as a part of this study. We chose to focus their research on African Americans and Women in those fields since it will stretch from Black History Month into Women’s History Month. Our students are using books and online resources to collect information and then write biographies about their chosen person. They will share their learning with classmates, families, and our school community through their writing.
  • Filling in Gaps and Reflecting on Messaging: I will be reflecting on the list of people I have covered, and be sure that it accomplishes the above goals by representing:
    • An expanded timeline from ancient times to the present
    • A breadth of contributions across fields
    • A balance of women and men
  • Opening Up the Conversation: This year, I am allowing my students open dialogue during our 10 minute snack and bathroom break in the morning. We have used conversation dice and question starters to guide those conversations. I am providing the Urban Intellectuals Flash Cards for my students to use to spur on conversations during this time. I am curious to see what discussions are sparked by the cards.

This month, I hope that as my students develop their social identities, they see the value of their own family and culture, but also reach beyond the historical in-groups and out-groups to recognize our common humanity. Their understanding of self and others will impact the remainder of their lives.

This process is a reminder that the work we do as educators carries weight beyond the elementary years. We must see it as foundational, not elementary, and we must understand the implications of the narrative we present.

Honoring Black History, not White Supremacy, Part 1

I am a white man. I am a part of the historically oppressive population responsible for the establishment and continuation of a white supremacist patriarchy.

I am also an elementary school teacher. My drive to be an educator is grounded in a desire to be a part of reversing the oppression that my ancestors promoted and redistributing the privilege I benefit from. Each day, I am faced with opportunities to shift the needle in small ways. I often miss opportunities or make missteps, but it is my hope that through the stumbling, I am impacting the opportunities and consciousness of all of my students, regardless of race, economic resources, or family structure.

January 15th was our national holiday recognizing the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Next month is Black History Month. As I reflect on this past week, and prepare for this coming month, I want to be sure that I prepare lessons, activities, and discussions for my students that honor Black History without reinforcing narratives promoted by white supremacists over the past 500+ years.

This series of blog posts will document the process I go through as an educator as I attempt to achieve the goals listed above.

Step 1: Educate Myself, Recognize Blind Spots

In 1915, Dr. Carter G. Woodson, a black historian and advocate, founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, now the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History (ASALH), in order to promote a true narrative of black history beyond the subjugation of slavery. Black History Month was originally developed in 1926 by Dr. Woodson and the ASALH, as a one week event to celebrate the contributions of African-Americans. It was expanded in 1976 to the entire month of February.

In a letter written by Dr. Woodson in 1927, he elaborates on the motivations for the establishment of the ASALH and a celebration of Black History. This paragraph stood out to me as particularly relevant to the work that we do as educators today:

“The fact is that the so-called history teaching in our schools and colleges is downright propaganda, an effort to praise one race and to decry the other to justify social repression and exploitation. The world is still in darkness as to the actual progress of mankind. Each corner of the universe has tended to concern itself merely with the exploits of its own particular heroes. Students and teachers of our time, therefore, are the victims of this selfish propaganda.”

For me, this paragraph is a good reminder that I am a cog in the great machine of American education which promotes a view of American history that celebrates the accomplishments of white people while denigrating every other population. It glosses over the human rights abuses of “manifest destiny” and “good masters” so it doesn’t make white people feel too bad about themselves or their ancestors. Additionally, it sells a version of Black History focused primarily on slavery, the Civil War, Jim Crow, and the Civil Rights Movement, without sufficiently recognizing the contributions of black men and women to the establishment of institutions, the development of economic centers, the invention of scientific instruments and processes, and the promotion of the general welfare.

Additionally, as Shaun King wrote in a 2016 article entitled Why Black History Month Should Never Begin With Slavery, the timeline of Black History promoted by this narrative is problematic.

“Yes, Harriet Tubman is heroic and deserves to be highlighted, but the history of black people did not begin with her courageous efforts on the underground railroad in 1850. Africans had already been in the United States for 231 years by the time she began her efforts. Beyond that,the 246 years of American slavery represent less than 1% of known black history from around the world…

…It is a formative, emotional, psychological mistake to introduce the history of black people with them as subjugated, enslaved peoples. Yes, it’s simply inaccurate, but it actually does damage — not just to young black children, but to all children, when they are given the distinct impression that black people began as inferior subjects and somehow found their way out.”

Keisha L. Bentley-Edwards, an assistant professor of educational psychology in the College of Education at The University of Texas at Austin, responded to King’s article with this expansion, Why We Need to Change How We Teach Black History, saying,

“When the telling or teaching of African Americans’ history begins with slavery, it ignores their humanity now, just as their humanity was denied in the past. When the profound contributions of African Americans before, during and after their enslavement are recognized, then their humanity — and therefore my humanity — is undeniable, and black lives would, in fact, matter.”

Professor Bentley-Edwards final sentence is not lost on me. The implication here is that intentionally educating our children is a part of establishing the truth that Black Lives Matter. Additionally, by not teaching these profound contributions throughout history, we are reinforcing the view that Black Lives do not Matter.

Reading these reflections has pointed out a few blind spots for me. First, I have not taught pre-American Black History as a part of Black History Month. I have taught my students about the African Empire of Mali, but not of the Songhai or Ghanaian Civilizations. This study was a stand-alone unit, and not a part of Black History Month, which means it was not a part of the narrative I was teaching.

Second, my instruction around Black History has often underrepresented figures from after the 1960s. Though I have not started or ended with slavery, I have started and ended with Civil Rights Leaders like Dr. King, Rosa Parks, and John Lewis. Though teaching about these individuals is obviously incredibly important, they do not sufficiently represent the vast history of black people. This year, I endeavor to expand my students’ understanding of Black History into African History, and all the way up to the present.

Third, I must continue to zoom into the stories presented about different figures, and be sure I present one of empowerment and historical fact, not the one fabricated by white supremacy. For example, I will continue to present Rosa Parks as an activist, not a tired lady on her way home, and I will present Dr. King not only as a pastor advocating for equal rights for people of color, but also as a political leader pushing against economic inequalities.

The work of anti-racism is one that must never end for us as educators. We, especially those of us who are white, must continue to educate ourselves and expand our understanding of history, psychology, pedagogy, and the white supremacy of our institutions. Our influence on the children in our care continues well beyond their elementary years. We must be intentional with what and how we teach them.




How a Podcast Sparked a Fire of Inquiry

Children crave attention. They are hard-wired to seek out attention, affection, and time from their families from their first breath. By the time they enter 3rd grade, their vision of the world extends well beyond those who share their home. Social relationships develop, communication skills grow, and their need to be seen, heard, and celebrated expands. This year, in consultation with our Media Specialist and Digital Lead Teacher, I am harnessing this need for attention as motivation for high quality work.

Last year, after reading Comprehension and Collaboration by Stephanie Harvey and Harvey Daniels, I began a research routine with my 3rd graders. My hope was to increase the level of inquiry in my classroom and expand the content we discussed beyond the standards I am responsible for teaching. Additionally, I hoped that this process would reveal for my students their own ability to answer questions through research, and as a result increase their self-efficacy.

It has been a wild success.

The structure is simple. Each day, during our Afternoon Meeting, I ask for Wonder Wall Questions. Students share any curiosity on their minds, we record it on a sticky note, and add it to our Wonder Wall. Each week, students choose any question from the Wonder Wall, take it to the library, and find a resource to help them answer it. Our Media Specialist and my Assistant Teacher help kids use online search programs and the library catalog to find sources. Each child brings their source back to the classroom and completes a notecatcher to help them record the information they learn.

When we began this last year, that was it. Students researched questions and shared that with me through their notecatchers. Occasionally, I would ask a few kids to share their research with the class. At the beginning of this year, however, my Media Specialist suggested that we find a way to connect their research to an audience through a blog or a podcast. My immediate reaction to this suggestion was one of hesitation. I already felt strapped for time during the school day, and could not see a way to incorporate this sort of process into our week without sacrificing something else. I thanked her for the ideas, and politely stated that I’d think about it. Admittedly, I let it go.

Then, one afternoon, as I was preparing to have a few kids report out on their research, I realized something. Podcasts are often just recorded conversations. Why not record this? So I did. Right there, in the middle of a group of 20 students, I launched our podcast by opening the Voice Memo app on my phone and pressing record. It was so simple!

As soon as my students realized what was happening, their interest in the experience shot through the roof. A chorus of “Are we gonna be on YouTube?” filled our classroom.

That afternoon, I emailed the audio file to their families and the response was overwhelming. Parents were excited, intrigued, and ready for the next episode. Kids were more engaged in our research routine, knowing their families were listening.

Over the past 3 months, my students have researched topics stretching from ancient times to current events, and across almost every discipline imaginable. Their natural curiosity has extended their 3rd grade experience well beyond the standards I am responsible for teaching them. They have been on fire about the Wonder Wall, going to the Library, and recording our podcast. The addition of a public audience through our podcast sparked this fire by giving them a motivation I had not offered them before.

We have now launched a real podcast, called Research Reports. Additionally, we were featured on our local news station, WLOS, through their Thanks to Teachers campaign.

This process of inquiry, research, and reporting to a public audience has taken us beyond elementary content, beyond elementary questioning, and beyond elementary expectations.